Fall Workshop: Urban Planning Reflection

The advocacy track hosted Kim Irwin from the Health By Design association on Nov. 29th to talk about Urban Planning.  The general message of our meeting addressed the importance of sidewalks and adequate pedestrian options in Indianapolis and how they have gone about projecting and planning for these needs. It is an issue I find important in my personal life and for my medical professional life. I also get excited by the idea that the place I live can perpetually improve and that we can make it better and enjoy it as a community. So I was pleased to learn about and support the message of Health By Design which forms coalitions of stakeholders and groups that have more power and resources to change the City of Indianapolis for the better.

When I moved to Indy I deliberately chose to live downtown near the Cultural Trail and the Monon Trail because I liked the walkability for outdoor exercising, historical sightseeing, access to a grocery store, and frequenting restaurants and shops all by foot. I was lucky to be able afford to rent in this up and coming area. As it turns out I’m not so unique, according to Ms. Irwin’s presentation my preferences are  fairly typical of my demographic: educated, white, and on the older edge of the Millenial generation which has latched on to more minimalist, pedestrian, and community hub living styles than preceding generations. I get to choose where to live, how to get around with plenty of options available to me, and mainly decide to walk recreationally rather than for practical transport to and from work. However, the purpose of Health By Design is not for young yuppies who like to powerwalk to get their next latte (for the record, I do not power walk), it is also about equitable options for people who require public transit, public places, and pedestrianism for their way of life. Regardless of whether you use walking for recreation or necessity, having sidewalks that people can safely ambulate on enriches the lives of everyone.

There are many areas of Indianapolis that walking as an easy and viable mode of transportation is hard. Arterial roads with high traffic and high speeds, long intervals between cross walks, lack of sidewalks, lack of pedestrian protection to cross at traffic lights, areas of greater crime, and general lack of lighting and visibility all contribute to walking being difficult or unsafe. Our heavily car reliant culture has not only changed our priorities in how cities plan transportation between areas of town but it also has influenced people’s perception of norms and socioeconomic class when it comes to getting around. Hopefully, social patterns will change over time to greater appreciate walking and exercise.

In the Emergency Department I see improved walkability as affecting my patients two fold. First, sedentary lifestyles have harmed people chronically and second, a decent amount of trauma comes from pedestrians put in unsafe conditions whether they are assaulted by others, intoxicated, and/or because they are struck by vehicles. After a few shifts it is not a far stretch to understand how Indianapolis received the dubious title of “Least Healthy Metro City in the Country” in 2016 (http://www.theindychannel.com/news/local-news/indy-named-least-healthy-metro-city-in-the-country). While walking wasn’t directly measured in this study it is likely related: Indy Metro area came in below target for physical activity in 30 days, meeting CDC aerobic activity guidelines, aerobic strength guidelines, and below target numbers in parks and recreational centers, as well as the typical variables like rates of obesity, coronary vascular disease, diabetes, and death as well as others. However, addressing these issues from within the ED does not work. It takes a larger community to affect change outside the hospital.

Kim presented the magnificent work that Health By Design has put into the initiative, Indy WalkWays, which is a collaborative partnership between Health by Design, the City of Indianapolis, the Marion County Public Health Department, the American Planning Association – Indiana Chapter and the Indiana Public Health Association. This initiative takes into account a number of factors to create an informed and improved Pedestrian Plan relevant to Indianapolis’ needs for greater walkability. It created a data driven algorithm and geographical information system (GIS) map to prioritize where Indianapolis should invest first for the biggest impact in improved walkability. This is necessary because unfortunately the need outstrips the funding. Right now, the cost of building an improved sidewalk network needed along Indianapolis’ arterial streets would be at least $750 million while the current annual budget is only $50 million for ALL city-funded transportation.

The scoring factors they used to weight GIS areas are Health, Safety, Equity, Comfort, Demand, and City Priorities. The image included at the end is the amalgamation of these maps came from their informative Pedestrian Plan available on their website (http://indywalkways.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/Indianapolis_Pedestrian-Plan_DRAFT_web_Pages.pdf).  It is evident that their scoring system places heavier emphasis on safety, health, and equity for underserved communities which I appreciate. Ms. Irwin spent some time showing us each GIS layer individually which is also available in the Pedestrian Plan online. Health was notably worse in the near East-side of Indy extending to the eastern edge of the county. Access to grocery stores and parks was poor. Overweight, obesity, diabetes and heart disease rates were high. This area also suffered a density of pedestrian collisions. My own anecdotal observations have been that this is where some of our worst traumas like gunshot wounds come from. The equity GIS map illustrated the areas that are most dependent on city-funded transit for the majority of their trips, calculated from areas high in concentration of elderly, disabled, minorities, households without cars, limited English speaking, and poverty in a swath along the southeast and northwest. The safety GIS layer also showed more than 50% of pedestrian-vehicle collisions occurring in the heart of downtown which surprised me since this is the area I frequently run and bike. Ultimately, this comes together to form many high priority Tier 1 areas in downtown Indianapolis that would benefit from urban investment.

A final piece of Kim Irwin’s presentation that I found interesting was the concept of not blaming the pedestrian for collisions that occur. This challenges our propensity in the medical field to point to a pedestrian’s choices to be irresponsible or drunk when they were injured so badly. According to WalkWays “No matter how you look at the data, every traffic fatality is preventable and unacceptable” because with proper planning and engineering human error can nearly be eliminated. For example, just reducing vehicle speed down from 40 mph by 10 or 20 mph in a collision with a pedestrian you improve mortality 50 and 90%, respectively.  “Vision Zero” is a lofty goal to end all pedestrian fatalities adopted in other major metropolitan areas. The city of Indianapolis has not yet committed to this but WalkWays still advocates for city planning to keep safe non-motorized transportation in mind. The side effects of sedentariness and questionable life choices leading to trauma are problems that I cannot easily address quickly in a shift but I can remind myself based off of this talk how we can work to make things better in this city in the long run.

I appreciated the chance to attend this talk and lift my head out of the Emergency Department fugue. It reminded me why I was excited to live in my new neighborhood when I moved here. I have absolutely taken advantage of the strides Indy has taken to improve its livability, which are the fruits of investments made years before I ever came here.  It re-inspired the nerdy, community oriented, and policy driven part of myself (like Leslie Knope the fictional character in the TV show Parks and Rec). I hope I can participate in Indy WalkWays events that may happen this spring. I reflected on the fact that especially in the Emergency department where our empathy and patience is continually stretched, judgment and blame will sometimes creep into the background of my impression of patients and the societal issues they deal with are often complex and beyond their control. I could probably not walk a day in the shoes of many of my difficult patients’ lives so I’m thankful that an Indy group like Health By Design exists to make this walk easier.

portfolio

Submitted by Jennica Siddle, MD PGY-1

Advocacy Workshop: Diversity and Inclusion in the ED

The US population continues to become more diverse but we still have racial and ethnic disparities in health care. How do you care for patients from different racial and ethnic backgrounds in the ED? Do these differences matter in healthcare or do we treat all patients with the same protocol? What biases do you bring with you that you might not be aware of? Are there ways to address these issues and bring greater understanding for you and your patients?

In October 2015, the Advocacy Track hosted a Diversity and Inclusion Workshop led by Amanda Bonilla, Assistant Director for Social Justice Education at IUPUI. We sought to discuss what the physician social responsibility is in regards to using inclusive language, understanding privilege, cultural and ethnic differences, and micro-aggressions.

We had good turnout with residents, faculty, and medical students in attendance.

Some of the critical topics covered included:

  • Bias we may have against people with different backgrounds
  • Understanding micro-aggressions
  • Recognizing the spectrum of diversity
  • Inclusive language

Why is this discussion so important to Emergency Medicine?

We want to enhance the professional development of all EM faculty and residents with respect to culturally competent medical care. The biggest reason to have this discussion in the emergency department is that we see patients from all walks of life and often provide their first impression of the hospital or hospital system. We broke into small groups and explored common stereotypes for racial, gender, religious and ethnic groups. This helped us to identify positive and negative biases we are aware of and how they affect our perspectives. Once we broke this down, we were able to further identify micro-aggressions and their effect on our practices.

As providers we want to give the best care we can, and that includes treating people fairly. Also, the better we understand our patients’ ethnic, cultural and religious identities the better care we can advise.

A sincere thank you to everyone who participated in this important conversation and our guest leader Amanda Bonilla!

Submitted by Tendi Warren, MD, PGY3 IUEM

Rachael’s First Week – Franklin Community High School

RFW Franklin 3RFW Franklin 1

On April 22, the Rachael’s First Week team held a presentation for Franklin Community High School in Franklin, IN. For those of you not familiar with Rachael’s First Week, it is a program designed to help high school seniors navigate the difficult transition from high school to young adulthood and college. Several hundred seniors gathered in the auditorium for the presentation and their responses have been overwhelmingly positive. Emergency medicine residents, Drs. Sarah Hemming-Meyer and Alex Rhea discussed safety tips, potential risks and ways to stay safe next year, but Rachael’s friends were the ones that were able to make students appreciate the reality of their vulnerability. These college students discussed their experience with Rachael’s death and also lessons they have learned over the last two years that they wish they had known before.

Rachael’s First Week is an ever-expanding program that has been able to interact with over one thousand students in live presentations and one thousand more via social media outlets. At Franklin, the students were, for the first time, able to interact via polling software allowing them to ask questions anonymously, an outlet necessary to inquire about sensitive subjects. Please watch the wonderful segment on Channel 8 highlighting this day. The next presentation will be at Zionsville High School on May 22. If you’re interested in helping out with Rachael’s First Week please contact Alex Rhea (rarhea@iu.edu) for more details.  Follow Rachael’s First Week on twitter: @Rachaels1stWeek

Link for Channel 8: http://wishtv.com/2015/04/23/campaign-expands-to-warn-more-students-of-college-dangers/

Special thanks to the Trauma NPs and IU ED RNs for their attendance and support for RFW.

Submitted By:  Alex Rhea, PGY-3 IUEM

Emergency Medicine Legislative Day 2015

Legislative day 1

IUEM Residents attended the annual Emergency Medicine Legislative Day at the Indiana Statehouse, organized by Emily Fitz (PGY3 EM Chief Resident and INACEP Resident Representative) and Lindsay Weaver (Emergency Medicine Associate Professor). Throughout the day, several legislators from both the house and senate stopped by to discuss issues in healthcare with the residents.

Dr. Tim Brown (Chair of Ways and Means), Dr. Jennifer Walthall (Deputy State Health Commissioner), and Dr. Heidi Dunniway (President of the ISMA) also participated by sharing their thoughts and individual experiences in advocating for patients through healthcare policy. It was enlightening to hear the extent of their dedication and passion for advocacy, and the ways in which a physician can become a leader in their field.

During her reflections on advocacy and resident impact on health policy, Dr. Jen Walthall aptly described, “residents are adorable but ruthless” in creating positive change in the legislative arena, and if “you are not at the table, then you are on the table.”

At this time, the Indiana legislation is considering the following bills:

  • Naloxone prescriptions for lay people (abusers, family and friends)
  • Needle Exchange Programs
  • Funding for more Residency spots in Indiana
  • Programs to enroll prisoners in Medicaid Prior to Release so they can get mental health medications
  • Increase in Medicaid coverage for psychiatric medications and inpatient detoxification

Dr. Lindsay Weaver reflected on the following recent legislation. “A bill that would increase malpractice caps was defeated earlier this year.  However, it is expected that the malpractice law will continue to be under attack over the next several years.  Thankfully, being at the statehouse and showing interest year after year will give us a voice in this debate.”

Several presentation were prepared and given by IUEM residents:

Emily Fitz, EM PGY3, Chief Resident:  “Legislative Day Overview”

  • 6th year of the program
  • Put together and run by IUEM residents
  • Sponsored by INACEP and IUEM
  • Our collaborations have brought about real change. Examples include the – Lifeline Law and Narcan for first responders

Sarah Hemming-Meyer, EM PGY2:  “Mental Health”

  • Mental health affects everyone- 1/4 adults, 1/10 children, 26% homeless and >50% inmates
  • Access to Care is directly related to Funding-HIP 2.0 expansion of Medicaid will have provide services to some people, but more funding is needed
  • We support the currently bills that are at this house & senate–Bill 1448 & Bill 1269
  • B1448–widening Medicaid coverage for approved FDA drugs with aid with substance withdrawal and inpatient detoxification
  • B1269–Department of Corrections become POA and assist inmates with Medicaid application not only while in prison and when released to ensure proper medications and support for inmates with mental illness.
  • National shortage of providers- increase funding for loan reimbursement, psych residency spots to increase # of psychiatry providers.

Kyle Yoder, EM/Pediatrics PGY5, Chief Resident:  “Prudent Lay Person” 

  • “Emergencies” are defined by the patient, not the doctor‬
  • A layperson cannot be expected to be able to differentiate a serious medical condition masquerading as a common medical condition
  • As emergency medicine doctors, we sometimes practice outside of the scope of our “medical specialty” because we are the only medical access for a portion of the population and because we took an oath to do what’s best for our patients

Rob Cantor, EM PGY3:  “Opiate Abuse and the Heroin Epidemic”

  • Opioid abuse is becoming an epidemic issue affecting our city, state and country.  Americans comprise <5% of the world’s population yet we consume ~80% of the world’s opioid supply.  120 people die in the U.S. every day from an opioid drug overdose.
  • Opioid abuse does not discriminate.  It affects all socioeconomic classes and ages, and being unemployed/homeless are not good predictors of abuse.
  • Recent increased restrictions on opioid prescribing has had several unintended consequences.  This includes a worsening heroin epidemic as well as HIV outbreaks in select communities as a result of increased intravenous drug abuse.
  • Senate Bill 406 (SB406), if passed, would allow physicians to prescribe Naloxone OTC without examining the patient for whom the drug is intended.  It would also allow for family/friends/first responders to administer this medication to individuals experiencing an expected opioid-related overdose.  We support passage of this bill which, when used in conjunction with current 911 Good Samaritan laws, can help save lives.
  • We have several goals looking towards the future.  We request continued support for state-side databases such as INSPECT.  We need additional funding for addictions counselors and facilities across the state.  We need improved resources and treatment options for individuals with mental health.  Our vision is to better identify patients who have a high risk of opioid abuse/addiction/overdose so that they can be treated appropriately either in chronic pain programs, with addiction specialists, or in various opioid clinics around the state.

David Hillhouse, EM PGY3:  “Malpractice and Increasing Residency Positions”

  • 1/4 of our residents choose to stay in IN
  • Opening up more residency spots will also keep good physicians in IN
  • A big reason residents choose to stay is because the malpractice laws are favorable (medical review board especially)
  • Maintaining the malpractice environment will keep physicians from leaving and will encourage more new physicians to come to IN

The following residents attended Legislative Day to meet their legislators and support their colleagues: Kailyn Kahre-Sights, Alex Rhea, Kara Reynolds, Beth Beard, Kyra Reed, and Dan Elliot.  Thanks also to Dr. Frank Messina, (Staff Emergency Medicine MD at Eskenazi), who was in attendance and reflected, “I think that it is important that we be involved at the level decisions are made.”

Legislative Day 2

Thank you to Dr. Emily Fitz and Dr. Lindsay Weaver for organizing a successful Legislative Day, and also to everyone for your participation and for representing Emergency Medicine in Indiana!

Submitted by Kyra Reed, PGY-3 EM/Pediatrics

Advocacy Workshop: Death and Dying in the ED

“There is a dignity in dying that doctors should not dare to deny.” – Unknown

Palliative Care Workshop 1

How do you respond when a family member pleas, “do everything”, for a dying patient?  What do you do for a patient with profound dyspnea at the end of life?  Did you know that hospice bereavement services are available to families of deceased patients even if the patient was never in hospice?

In February 2015, the Advocacy Track hosted a Palliative Care Workshop led by Dr. Lindsay Weaver, Assistant Professor of Clinical Emergency Medicine and Palliative Care Medicine. There was a tremendous turn out for the workshop, and included representation from multiple hospitals and a wide variety of specialties/fields – RNs, faculty/resident EM MDs, NPs, SWs, CMs, CNAs, hospice representatives, and palliative care experts.

A few of the critical topics related to death and dying in the ED were covered, including:

  • Withdrawal and end of life of care in the ED
  • Code status discussions in the ED
  • Hospice resources/information
  • Discussing the results of the palliative care needs assessment
  • Aiding in the development of an action plan for end of life care in our EDs

Why is this discussion so important, and how does it relate to emergency medicine?  

As Dr. Weaver aptly stated in her powerpoint, “The Emergency Department is the safety net for the acutely and chronically seriously ill. As the population ages, ED visits for crisis events in the setting of serious, chronic illness are likely to increase. Initiating end of life conversations in the ED allow for a more patient centered, quality of life centered focus that may save the patient from unwanted procedures, avoidance of unnecessary admissions, integration into resources such as palliative care sooner, and decreased overall cost to patients and families that does not ultimately improve end of life care.

Palliative Care Workshop 3

Individual patient cases were discussed in small groups, each illuminating key points in caring for patients at the end of life. The overwhelming theme was communication. Taking the time to discuss options with patients and families with the other team members (RNs, CMs, SWs) can prove to be the major factor in providing optimal care. The consensus was that we should start these conversations in the ED, because what we do has a snowball effect for the patient’s management/testing/procedures in the hospital.

What limitations or barriers exist to limit our ability as providers to achieve this in the ED?

  • Common responses include TIME. Conversations about end of life take time, and this can be a limited commodity in the ED during a bustling shift. However, sharing with your colleagues in the department that you are going to have a conversation with a family is OK. Some thoughts were to have secretaries hold pages for 10 minutes during this time, and to make a call-back list when you are finished. We often do not like to ask for help, but in some situations, this can prove to be the difference between intubation, central lines, arterial lines, vasopressors, and a week or more on the ventilator, when perhaps all the patient or family really wants is the option to go home with hospice or focus primarily on pain control and do it well.
  • Another concern was provider/RN comfort and perceived time required in providing medications for comfort. There seems to be a educational gap regarding goals of comfort measures in the department, because it is not performed often.
  • Furthemore, lack of documentation and medico-legal concerns are another factor.

Solutions we discussed to improve Palliative Care in the ED:

  • Creating an order set for withdrawal of care/comfort measures in the ED
  • Identifying a quiet place in the ED to provide comfort care and/or arrange services, for example, the observation unit
  • A bereavement resource basket filled with information for families who have a loved one pass in the ED
  • Resource handout available in the ED for easy reference for providers
  • Educating staff/residents/RNs/ancillary staff on medications used for comfort measures
  • Carrying out discussions and plan of care in the presence of the entire team, if possible, including MDs, RNs, chaplain, SW/CM to ensure communication is consistent
  • Holding pages from secretaries and asking fellow ED colleagues for help while you have this important conversation uninterrupted

Some of the above solutions are actively being implemented in the Methodist ED, and other sites are also being considered.

A sincere thank you to everyone who participated in this important conversation, particularly to our guest speakers, our resident leaders Amber Fouts (EM PGY-2) and Anar Desai (EM PGY-3), and to our faculty leader/presenter, Dr. Lindsay Weaver.

Submitted by: Kyra Reed, PGY-3 EM/Pediatrics

IUEM Christmas Family 2014

Christmas Family IUEM 2014 group

Each year, the Emergency Medicine/Pediatrics Residency and the Advocacy Team through Indiana University Emergency Medicine Program takes part in the United Way Christmas Service. The United Way pairs volunteers or groups with an underserved family in the community, with the goal being to provide gifts to a family that otherwise would be unable to do so. Volunteers are given the names, ages, sizes of clothes/shoes, and the desired gifts for each family member.

This year, the Advocacy Team provided gifts to a family of seven – five children (ages 1, 6, 11, 14, 17) and two parents. We are excited to share that well over $500 in donations were provided from the IUEM Residency Program! Volunteers helped wrap gifts and deliver them a few days before Christmas to the family. Shoes, clothes, winter coats, family games, a basketball, and a variety of Ninja Turtles toys were just a few examples of the gifts provided to the family. During delivery, the family was ecstatic about the donations, and extremely thankful. The mother shared that with a family member currently in hospice, they are going through a financial and emotional rough patch, and without the donations, they would have not been able to celebrate the holidays at all this year. The children stated happily that they plan on sending hand drawn thank you cards to the residency. Look at those smiles!

Christmas Family IUEM 2014 kids

Christmas Family IUEM 2014, wrap

Christmas Family IUEM 2014 wrap 2

Thank you everyone for your generous donations and for those that helped wrap and deliver the gifts! We look forward to continuing this annual tradition.

More about the Christmas Service:  http://www.uwci.org/programs/united-christmas-service

Submitted by:  Kyra Reed, PGY-3 Emergency Medicine/Pediatrics

Infant Mortality Summit 2014

Kyra Reed, PGY3 Emergency Medicine/Pediatrics

infant socks mort conference

“Preventing infant death is EVERYONE’s responsibility”.
This recurrent message from the 2014 Infant Mortality Summit resonated deeply with the audience as we gazed upon the 654 pairs of infant socks arranged on the stage. These socks represent the number of infants that do not survive to see their first birthday in Indiana each year. The issue surrounding infant mortality is multifaceted and complex, spanning a variety of socioeconomic, cultural, and geographic lines. The goal of the summit was to educate on facts, inspire, share innovative ideas/solutions, and to bring together resources to combat this public health concern in Indiana.

Reflecting on the conference, this message definitely included Emergency Medicine in my mind. We can all strive to find a teachable moment or provide a small intervention with families in the ED, such as information on safe sleep, injury prevention, and coping with parental stress. This just might save a life.

A few highlights from the summit:

infant mort summit safe sleep book

Charlie’s Kids Foundation is an organization created in memory of Charlie, son of Maura and Sam Hanke, who died from SIDsS in 2010. The book above, “Sleep Baby, Safe and Snug”, was written to educate families about safe sleep through vivid illustrations. Each page displays the AAP’s guidelines for safe sleep and early literacy in a creative and beautiful way. Perhaps a future project could be to pass out books to parents/guardians/foster parents of infants from the ED? Find out more: http://charlieskids.org/

Non-accidental trauma is an unfortunate reality, and this is part of what we see in the ED. Dr. David Olds with the Nurse-Family Partnership found that with the institution of home visiting nurse programs, the incidence of NAT and pediatric injuries substantially decreased.

— CVS announced that all tobacco products have been removed from their shelves. A win in the effort to decrease smoking rates.

— The afternoon breakout sessions also proved equally enlightening. A variety of important topics were covered, including approaches to addressing infant safe sleep, pregnancy and prescription drug abuse, delayed cord clamping in premature infants, smoking cessation in pregnancy, infant mortality in Burmese Chin population, strategies to address disparities in rural areas, postpartum contraception in urban adolescents, breastfeeding improvement strategies, simulation for obstetric/neonatal emergencies to improve outcomes in rural areas, and innovative technological mobile applications to improve education and access to resources. Some specifics from the sessions I attended:

Reducing Infant Mortality in a Vulnerable Burmese Chin Population, with Panel Discussion
– Burmese refugees represent the largest proportion of immigrants to Indianapolis, and numbers are increasing drastically every year
– Culture: Pregnancy is expected shortly after marriage. A larger family represents the strength of the family and provides increased support in times of need.
– Mothers often feel that prenatal vitamins lead to maternal weight gain, which results in large infants and therefore a high risk delivery
– Thus, providers need to encourage vitamin use and nutrition while explaining benefits
– Little to no prenatal care available in home country, all health costs paid out of pocket. No insurance, no blood banks. Most deliveries occur in the home with the assistance of female elder of the community.
– Initial screening for refugees upon arrival to U.S.: CMP, CBC, Hep A/B, UA, UPT, TB, syphilis, HIV
– Ways the community is attempting to improve education include: Educational programs on nutrition, health, and navigating healthcare in U.S., going to apartment communities where large number of Burmese live to provide resources
– Currently, group is working on providing genetic counseling and mental health resources
– Suicide risk in this population 4 times higher than general population

Wabash Valley Healthy Moms and Babies Initiative
RHIC picture
– Rural Health Innovation Collaborative (RHIC) in Terre Haute, IN: Learn more http://therhic.org/index.php
– “It’s about connecting people out of their silos,” explains Stephanie Laws, Executive Director of RHIC.
– Goal is to learn from communities and identify priorities of the community
– Striving to promote development of community-based prevention and intervention strategies
– It is a broad spectrum of community participation that leads to sustainability
– Rural culture often does not support asking for help, which impacts health
– Enacting Community Health Advocacy Leaders (evalueLEAD) for Pregnancy Peer Support Program, which creates social networks to provide emotional and instructional support for mothers
– The importance of community leaders in identifying issues and promoting change is undeniable
– The project has observed the immense power that social determinants have in overall health

Training Rural Providers to Save Infants Using Simulation
sim baby
– Large number of OB units throughout rural Indiana are closing
– Many residents of rural Indiana travel >30miles to access care
– Now have increasing number of deliveries occurring in rural EDs
– This is a low volume yet high risk situation for providers, mothers, and infants in this setting
– RHIC created simulation center to train rural providers for these OB/neonatal emergencies in order to reduce infant mortality
– Simulation scenarios are also brought to rural EDs unannounced to assess preparedness and what resources are needed for these situations
– Most rural providers have never seen an OB/neonatal emergency or it has been >9mo since being involved
– Critical Access Hospitals are eager to learn, and this training has been implemented successfully
– More about http://therhic.org/index.php/simcenter

Overall, a moving and educational conference. Thank you to the Indiana State Department of Health, Summit Speakers, and Breakout Session Speakers/Panelists for all of your hard work and inspirational comments!